Len M. Nichols is a non-resident Fellow of the Health Policy Center of the Urban Institute and Professor Emeritus of Health Policy at George Mason University. He is a health economist and the PI of the CAPGI project, and was the coauthor, with Lauren A. Taylor, of the paper that initiated this work. Len has been intimately involved in health reform debates, policy development, and communication with the media and policy makers for 25+ years, after he was Senior Advisor for Health Policy at the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in the Clinton Administration. Since that time he has testified frequently before Congress and state legislatures, published extensively and spoken to a wide range of hospital associations, hospital systems, physician groups, boards of directors, and health policy leadership forums around the country. After OMB, Len was a Principle Research Associate at the Urban Institute, Vice President of the Center for Studying Health System Change, and Director of the Health Policy Program at the New America Foundation. Len continues to serve on the Board of Directors of the National Committee for Quality Assurance, and is a payment reform advisor the Virginia Center for Health Innovation. Len was an Innovation Advisor to the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation at CMS in 2012, a member of the Physician Focused Payment Model Technical Advisory Committee from 2015-2019. Len’s first job was teaching economics at Wellesley College from 1980-1991, where he became Associate Professor and Economics Department Chair, after receiving his Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Illinois in 1980. Len got his B.A. from Hendrix College in Conway, Arkansas, and his M.A. in Economics from the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. He lives in Arlington, Virginia, with his wife Nora Super of the Milken Institute.